>> Glossary

Bioaccumulation = accumulation of pollutants in organisms in relation to the medium surrounding them.

Bioaugmentation = large-scale inoculation of soil contamination with a specialized bacterial culture.

Biodegradation (actually “microbial biodegradation”) = microbial biological decomposition of environmental pollutants such as hydrocarbons (e.g. oil), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), PAHs and heterocyclic compounds.

Bioenhancing = increasing the availability of active ingredients and nutrients to their target structures (increasing bioavailability). Through the targeted application of naturally occurring bioenhancers (microorganisms) and their subsequent activity (microbiotic weathering of minerals), the availability of active ingredients and nutrients for plants that are already present in the soil or supplied via fertilisers can be increased.

Bioleaching (more precisely: microbial ore leaching; also: Biomining) = extraction of metals and/or potentially toxic elements (PTE) from their ores through chemical conversion of insoluble ore minerals to water-soluble salts by microorganisms .

Biological pesticides = protect plants from harmful organisms or prevent their effects.

Biological plant strengtheners⁠ = are substances and mixtures including microorganisms that serve to keep plants healthy or to protect plants from non-parasitic damage. They have no harmful effects on human or animal health, the groundwater or any other unacceptable effects, especially on the ecosystem. They have a preventive effect against pests and diseases.

Biomineralization = building of solid mineral structures through living cells.

Bioprecipitation = the process of formation of mineral phases (bioprecipitates or biominerals) by organisms.

Bioremediation = biological remediation (i.e. use of organisms) for the biological detoxification of ecosystems that are contaminated and contaminated with organic or anorganic pollutants.

Biosorption = the ability of certain microorganisms to enrich (bioaccumulation) potentially toxic elements and radionuclides; biosorption is used to remove and/or recover metals and metalloids from aqueous solutions (metal enrichment).

Biostimulation = activation of the microorganisms by adding biogenic elements in the form of fertilizers.

Biovolatilization =  the process of releasing methylated (by micro-organisms) elements from cells to the surrounding environment is called biovolatilization (e.g. arsenic, antimony, bismuth, selenium, mercury and tellurium).

BaP = Benzo[a]pyrene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) with the empirical formula C20H12.

Cyanide = salts and other compounds of hydrogen cyanide (hydrogen cyanide, HCN).

In-Situ / Ex-Situ = In-situ means “directly on the spot”; the antonym is ex-situ.

ISCO = in-situ chemical oxidation.

MKW = mineral oil hydrocarbons, contained in mineral, heating and lubricating oil as well as in gasoline and diesel fuel.

Naphthalene = a bicyclic aromatic hydrocarbon with the empirical formula C10H8.

Oxidation = chemical reaction in which an atom, ion or molecule gives up electrons; its oxidation number is increased.

PAH / PAH = polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are organic compounds that consist of at least two linked aromatic ring systems; PAHs are proven carcinogenic.

PTE = potentially toxic elements; these are metals or metalloids that is noted for their potential toxicity, especially in environmental contexts (in particular arsenic, mercury, lead, chromium and cadmium).

Redox reaction = chemical reaction in which one or more electrons are transferred from an electron donor (reduction = electron acceptance) to an electron acceptor (oxidation = electron release). Microorganisms play a decisive role in all redox reactions in the environment under natural conditions.