Bioaccumulation = accumulation of pollutants in organisms in relation to the medium surrounding them
Bioaugmentation = large-scale inoculation of soil contamination with a specialized bacterial culture
Biodegradation (actually “microbial biodegradation”) = microbial biological decomposition of environmental pollutants such as hydrocarbons (e.g. oil), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), PAHs and heterocyclic compounds
Bioleaching (more precisely: microbial ore leaching; also: Biomining) = extraction of potentially toxic elements (PTE) from their ores through chemical conversion of insoluble ore minerals to water-soluble salts by microorganisms
Biological pesticides = protect plants from harmful organisms or prevent their effects.
Biological plant strengtheners = are substances and mixtures including microorganisms that serve to keep plants healthy or to protect plants from non-parasitic damage. They have no harmful effects on human or animal health, the groundwater or any other unacceptable effects, especially on the ecosystem. They have a preventive effect against pests and diseases.
Biomineralization = building of solid mineral structures through living cells
Bioprecipitation = the process of formation of mineral phases (bioprecipitates or biominerals) by organisms
Bioremediation = biological remediation (i.e. use of organisms) for the biological detoxification of ecosystems that are contaminated and contaminated with pollutants
Biosorption = the ability of certain microorganisms to enrich (bioaccumulation) potentially toxic elements and radionuclides; biosorption is used to remove and/or recover metals and metalloids from aqueous solutions (metal enrichment).
Biostimulation = activation of the microorganisms by adding biogenic elements in the form of fertilizers
Biovolatilization = the process of releasing methylated (by micro-organisms) elements from cells to the surrounding environment is called biovolatilization (e.g. arsenic, antimony, bismuth, selenium, mercury and tellurium)
BaP = Benzo[a]pyrene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) with the empirical formula C20H12
Cyanide = salts and other compounds of hydrogen cyanide (hydrogen cyanide, HCN)
In-Situ / Ex-Situ = In-situ means “directly on the spot”; the antonym is ex-situ
ISCO = in-situ chemical oxidation
MKW = mineral oil hydrocarbons, contained in mineral, heating and lubricating oil as well as in gasoline and diesel fuel
Naphthalene = a bicyclic aromatic hydrocarbon with the empirical formula C10H8
Oxidation = chemical reaction in which an atom, ion or molecule gives up electrons; its oxidation number is increased
PAH / PAH = polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are organic compounds that consist of at least two linked aromatic ring systems; PAHs are proven carcinogenic
PTE = potentially toxic elements; these are metals or metalloids that is noted for their potential toxicity, especially in environmental contexts (in particular arsenic, mercury, lead, chromium and cadmium).
Redox reaction = chemical reaction in which one or more electrons are transferred from an electron donor (reduction = electron acceptance) to an electron acceptor (oxidation = electron release). Microorganisms play a decisive role in all redox reactions in the environment under natural conditions.