Glossary

Bioaccumulation = accumulation of pollutants in organisms in relation to the medium surrounding them

Bioaugmentation = large-scale inoculation of soil contamination with a specialized bacterial culture

Biodegradation (actually “microbial biodegradation”) = microbial biological decomposition of environmental pollutants such as hydrocarbons (e.g. oil), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), PAHs and heterocyclic compounds

Bioleaching (more precisely: microbial ore leaching; also: Biomining) = extraction of heavy metals from their ores through chemical conversion of insoluble ore minerals to water-soluble salts by microorganisms

Biomineralization = building of solid mineral structures through living cells

Bioprecipitation = the process of formation of mineral phases (bioprecipitates or biominerals) by organisms

Bioremediation = biological remediation (i.e. use of organisms) for the biological detoxification of ecosystems that are contaminated and contaminated with pollutants

Biosorption = the ability of certain microorganisms to enrich (bioaccumulation) heavy metals and radionuclides; biosorption is used to remove and/or recover metals from aqueous solutions (metal enrichment)

Biostimulation = activation of the microorganisms by adding biogenic elements in the form of fertilizers

Biovolatilization =  the process of releasing methylated (by micro-organisms) elements from cells to the surrounding environment is called biovolatilization (e.g. arsenic, antimony, bismuth, selenium, mercury and tellurium)

BaP = Benzo[a]pyrene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) with the empirical formula C20H12

Cyanide = salts and other compounds of hydrogen cyanide (hydrogen cyanide, HCN)

In-Situ / Ex-Situ = In-situ means “directly on the spot”; the antonym is ex-situ

ISCO = in-situ chemical oxidation

MKW = mineral oil hydrocarbons, contained in mineral, heating and lubricating oil as well as in gasoline and diesel fuel

Naphthalene = a bicyclic aromatic hydrocarbon with the empirical formula C10H8

Oxidation = chemical reaction in which an atom, ion or molecule gives up electrons; its oxidation number is increased

PAH / PAH = polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are organic compounds that consist of at least two linked aromatic ring systems; PAHs are proven carcinogenic

Redox reaction = chemical reaction in which one or more electrons are transferred from an electron donor (reduction = electron acceptance) to an electron acceptor (oxidation = electron release). Microorganisms play a decisive role in all redox reactions in the environment under natural conditions.

THM = toxic heavy metals; these are metals or metalloids that is noted for their potential toxicity, especially in environmental contexts (in particular arsenic, mercury, lead, chromium and cadmium)